This joint Cybersecurity Advisory (CSA)—coauthored by the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Department of Energy (DOE)—provides information on multiple intrusion campaigns conducted by state-sponsored Russian cyber actors from 2011 to 2018 and targeted U.S. and international Energy Sector organizations. CISA, the FBI, and DOE responded to these campaigns with appropriate action in and around the time that they occurred. CISA, the FBI, and DOE are sharing this information in order to highlight historical tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) used by adversaries to target U.S. and international Energy Sector organizations.
On March 24, 2022, the U.S. Department of Justice unsealed indictments of three Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) officers and a Russian Federation Central Scientific Research Institute of Chemistry and Mechanics (TsNIIKhM) employee for their involvement in the following intrusion campaigns against U.S. and international oil refineries, nuclear facilities, and energy companies.
- Global Energy Sector Intrusion Campaign, 2011 to 2018: the FSB conducted a multi-stage campaign in which they gained remote access to U.S. and international Energy Sector networks, deployed ICS-focused malware, and collected and exfiltrated enterprise and ICS-related data.
- One of the indicted FSB officers was involved in campaign activity that involved deploying Havex malware to victim networks.
- The other two indicted FSB officers were involved in activity targeting U.S. Energy Sector networks from 2016 through 2018.
- Compromise of Middle East-based Energy Sector organization with TRITON Malware, 2017: Russian cyber actors with ties to the TsNIIKhM gained access to and leveraged TRITON (also known as HatMan) malware to manipulate a foreign oil refinery’s ICS controllers. TRITON was designed to specifically target Schneider Electric’s Triconex Tricon safety systems and is capable of disrupting those systems. Schneider Electric has issued a patch to mitigate the risk of the TRITON malware’s attack vector; however, network defenders should install the patch and remain vigilant against these threat actors’ TTPs.
- The indicted TsNIIKhM cyber actor is charged with attempt to access U.S. protected computer networks and to cause damage to an energy facility.
- The indicted TsNIIKhM cyber actor was a co-conspirator in the deployment of the TRITON malware in 2017.
This CSA provides the TTPs used by indicted FSB and TsNIIKhM actors in cyber operations against the global Energy Sector. Specifically, this advisory maps TTPs used in the global Energy Sector campaign and the compromise of the Middle East-based Energy Sector organization to the MITRE ATT&CK for Enterprise and ATT&CK for ICS frameworks.
CISA, the FBI, and DOE assess that state-sponsored Russian cyber operations continue to pose a threat to U.S. Energy Sector networks. CISA, the FBI, and DOE urge the Energy Sector and other critical infrastructure organizations to apply the recommendations listed in the Mitigations section of this advisory and Appendix A to reduce the risk of compromise.
For more information on Russian state-sponsored malicious cyber activity, see CISA’s Russia Cyber Threat Overview and Advisories webpage. For more information on the threat of Russian state-sponsored malicious cyber actors to U.S. critical infrastructure as well as additional mitigation recommendations, see joint CSA Understanding and Mitigating Russian State-Sponsored Cyber Threats to U.S. Critical Infrastructure and CISA’s Shields Up Technical Guidance webpage.
Rewards for Justice Program
If you have information on state-sponsored Russian cyber operations targeting U.S. critical infrastructure, contact the Department of State’s (DOS) Rewards for Justice program. You may be eligible for a reward of up to $10 million, which DOS is offering for information leading to the identification or location of any person who, while acting under the direction or control of a foreign government, participates in malicious cyber activity against U.S. critical infrastructure in violation of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA). Contact +1-202-702-7843 on WhatsApp, Signal, or Telegram, or send information via the Rewards for Justice secure Tor-based tips line located on the Dark Web. For more details refer to rewardsforjustice.net.